如何欣赏西方绘画的极简清单

如何迅速地识别一幅西方绘画属于什么流派?

作者:「得到」App订阅专栏《严伯钧·西方艺术史》的主理人严伯钧

 

1. 西方绘画的大规律

总的来说,从文艺复兴到现代主义这800年间,西方绘画经历了从“画得像”到“画得不像”的过程。看画的时候,第一个要了解的就是“创作年代”。创作年代距离现在越近,越不要夸这幅画“画得真像”。具体来说,不同的流派风格特点各不相同。

2. 文艺复兴时期(Renaissance):十三世纪末期至十六世纪中叶

关键词:“正”。

四平八稳,人物的身材比例和真实生活当中几乎一样;人物形象没有夸张表情,了不起有个微笑,或者小小忧伤。整幅画没有明暗对比,人物都置身于风景或建筑当中。景色都风轻云淡,建筑均错落有致。

欣赏方法:走近了看,看微观上的“像”;站远了看,看宏观上的“和谐”。

代表画家:达·芬奇、拉斐尔。

代表作:达·芬奇的《蒙娜丽莎》。

3. 北方文艺复兴(Northern Renaissance):十五世纪初期至十六世纪中叶

关键词:“细”。

“北方”指的是阿尔卑斯山以北,主要指荷兰、德国等地,区别于阿尔卑斯山以南的意大利文艺复兴。北方文艺复兴的绘画细密到极点,貂皮大衣的绒毛丝丝入扣,华服上的镂金根根分明。

欣赏方法:注意细节,动物看毛,衣服看褶皱和花纹,如果有镜子,一定注意镜子里面有什么。

代表画家:扬·凡·艾克、丢勒。

代表作:扬·凡·艾克的《男子肖像》。

4. 矫饰主义(Mannerism):约 1520-1580年

关键词:“妖”。

矫饰主义是出现在文艺复兴末期向巴洛克风格过渡的一个短时期。文艺复兴的大师们把“正”的东西都画完了,年轻的艺术家想要混出来,只能剑走偏锋,画“不正”的、“妖娆”的东西。主题妖里妖气,色彩绚丽夸张,人物奇形怪状,不乏情色、怪诞、夸张之感。

欣赏方法:注意奇特的故事情节、夸张艳丽的配色,以及人物奇葩的表情。

代表画家:布隆齐诺、帕尔米贾尼诺。

代表作:布隆齐诺的《维纳斯的胜利》。

5. 巴洛克(Baroque):十六世纪末期至十七世纪末期

关键词:“戏”。

巴洛克绘画强调戏剧性,强调冲突,有情感张力。一幅画,背景黑乎乎,局部却好像有一道光照射进来。形成黑暗与光明的强烈对比,人物表情很生动,感觉在演戏一般。

欣赏方法:注意光线明暗交织的地方,那是画家最希望你注意的地方。忽略细节,感受画面中戏剧性冲突的那一刻。

代表画家:卡拉瓦乔、伦勃朗。

代表作:卡拉瓦乔的《圣马太蒙召》。

6. 洛可可(Rococo):17世纪末期19世纪中后期

关键词:“媚”。

洛可可流行于18世纪的法国,核心思想是追求享乐的生活态度。场景愉悦,脂粉气浓,整体色彩粉嫩,人物皮肤水灵,好似加了磨皮滤镜一般。

欣赏方法:注重画面中的欢愉浮华气氛,关注整体色调的氤氲之气。

代表画家:弗拉戈纳尔、华托。

代表作:弗拉戈纳尔的《秋千》。

7. 新古典主义(Neoclassicism):18世纪末期至19世纪上半叶

关键词:“精”。

新古典主义是对文艺复兴拉斐尔式理想主义绘画的复兴。主题人物“伟”、“光”、“正”,笔触精细,色彩鲜明,近看看不到任何笔触痕迹。

欣赏方法:感受“人肉照相机”一般的精细、笔触的精致,以及色彩的绚丽平衡。

代表画家:大卫、安格尔。

代表作:大卫的《拿破仑在杜伊勒里宫办公室》。

 

8. 浪漫主义(Romanticism):19世纪初期至中叶

关键词:“飘”。

追求个人情感的释放,与新古典主义的主张完全背道而驰,笔触粗放,画风飘逸,情绪饱满。

欣赏方法:别站太近,像看电影一样去看绘画,感受画面的情感冲击。

代表画家:德拉克罗瓦、戈雅。

代表作:德拉克罗瓦的《肖邦肖像》。

9. 法国写实主义(French Realism):19世纪中叶

关键词:“朴”。

这里的写实,指的不是技法上的写实,而是题材上的写实,这派画家喜欢走到乡间,刻画底层人民的生活,接地气。

欣赏方法:搞清楚画中人物的社会阶层,以及他们在干什么,尝试角色扮演,将自己带入情境。

代表画家:米勒、库尔贝。

代表作:米勒的《拾穗者》。

10. 印象主义(Impressionism):19世纪后半叶

关键词:“浸”。

印象主义绘画的主张是忽略形状,用色彩和光影作画,走到自然中去观察,看到什么画什么,所以导致印象主义绘画的真实感不仅来源于视觉,会带来强烈的“沉浸式”体验。

欣赏方法:站远一点看。如果你近视眼,不戴眼镜看是个不错的选择;不近视的可以把眼睛眯起来看,想象自己置身画面的场景之中。这种沉浸式体验,能让你身临其境,体会到画面以外的感受。

代表画家:莫奈、雷诺阿。

代表作:雷诺阿的《艾琳小姐》。

11. 后印象主义(Post-Impressionism):19世纪末期至20世纪初

关键词:“幻”。

在印象主义绘画忽略形状的基础上,后印象主义在客观中加入主观,为了表达和谐的构图、原始的冲动,以及情感的纠缠,让画面更加扭曲变形,形成一种粗中有细、视觉冲击极强的绘画风格。

欣赏方法:远一点看,沉浸于画面之中的时候,不妨将个人情感带入。

代表画家:梵高、高更、塞尚。

代表作:梵高的《自画像》。

12. 现代主义(Modernism):20世纪至今

关键词:“梦”。

20世纪后出现的很多看上去“怪”的绘画,比如以毕加索为代表的立体主义(Cubism)、克里姆特为代表的表现主义(Expressionism)、达利为代表的超现实主义(Surrealism),都属于现代绘画。这些绘画,跳出了主题、形状和色彩的框架,直接向人们的视觉发起情感冲击,现实在现代主义的画笔之下崩塌了,让看画的人仿佛置身梦境一般。好像一段音乐,不用知道标题是什么,你也能听出它的情绪。

欣赏方法:长时间地注视,放弃理性和逻辑的思考,用放空、感性的眼光去体会。

代表画家:蒙克、毕加索、波洛克、罗斯科。

代表作:蒙克的《尖叫》。

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